Universal Declaration of Human Rights- internationally agreed upon document regarding standard human rights expectations signed December 10, 1948 by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The UDHR can be found here. Signed by Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Thailand, Sweden, Syria, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. 8 countries abstained from signing: Belorussia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Ukraine, USSR, Yugoslavia, South Africa and Saudi Arabia.
United Nations (UN)-
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) – United Nations body whose primary responsibility under the UN Charter is for the maintenance of international peace and security. Permanent members are USSR/Russia, USA, Britain, France and China. African leaders have recently been calling for a permanent seat within the UNSC declaring that their exclusion can no longer be justified.
Universalist protectionism- Can be found in progressive political parties dedicated to establishing a more equitable relationship between the global North and South. In addition, they include a growing number of NGOs and transnational networks concerned with the protection of the environment, fair trade and international labour issues, human rights, and women’s issues. Challenging the central claims of globalism, these groups point to the possibility of constructing a new international order based on a global redistribution of wealth and power. Universalist protectionists claim to be guided by ideals of equality and social justice for all people in the world, not just the citizens of their own countries. They accuse globalist elites of pushing policies that are leading to greater global inequality, high levels of unemployment, environmental degradation, and the demise of social welfare. Calling for “globalization from below” favoring the marginalized and poor, they seek to protect ordinary people all over the world from a neoliberal “globalization from above”. Examples include US’ Ralph Nader