M

Marxism- a positivist paradigm that rejects the realist/liberal view of the state conflict or cooperation; instead focusing on economic and material aspects. The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels where the concept of class struggle plays the central role in understanding society’s allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society. It holds that all people are entitled to enjoy the fruits of their labour but are prevented from doing so in a capitalist economic system, which divides society into two classes: nonowning workers and nonworking owners.

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)- comprehensive and specific development goals agreed upon by the international communities in 2000 to be achieved by 2015, including goals and targets on income poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, disease, inadequate shelter, gender inequality, environmental degradation and the Global Partnership for Development. MDGs are both global and local, tailored to each countries’ specific needs.

Multilateral Agreement – a contract under international law that has several parties and establishes rights and obligations between each part and every other party. Multilateral treaties are often, but not always, open to any state; others are regional.

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